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2K

Describes a resolution family for digital cinema. Defined as 2048x1080 (1:1,89), 1998x1080 (1:1,85), 2048x858 (1:2,39), 2048x1152 (recording only, no master format!!! 16:9 is mastered at 1920x1080)


444

Here: R'G'B' at full resolution


422

Chroma sub-sampling: While every pixel is sampled for luminance, chrominance is only sampled on every other pixel. As a result the croma resolution is only 1/2of the luma resolution


4K

4K cinema resolution of 4096 x 2160 pixels as standardised by the DCI - double the DCI-2K resolution. Commonly, if erroneously, used to refer to television standard UHD-1 at 3480x2160 pixels.


6K

6144x3160 Not a DCI standard. Produced by RED Dragon camera to provide oversampling for post-production before mastering at 4K.


8K

8192x4320 pixel resolution for 8K cinema projection. Commonly, if erroneously, used to refer to television standard UHD-2 at 7680x4320 pixels.


420

Chroma sub-sampling: While every pixel is sampled for luminance (Y), chrominance (Cb, Cr) is only sampled on every odd line on every other pixel. As a result the croma resolution is only 1/4 of the luma resolution


2020

see BT2020


 

A

AAC HE

Advanced Audio Coding - High Efficiency: MPEG standard audio compression


AAF

Advanced Authoring Format - media container format developed by the Advanced Media Workflow Association (AMWA). AAF can contain media essence, metadata and complex edit decisions.


ADSL

Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line - broadband network variant that can be provided over existing analogue or digital telephone lines. Download bandwidth usually far outperforms upload bandwidth.


AFP

Apple Filing Protocol - network protocol designed by Apple Corp. as one of several options enabling computers running OS(X) to access shared network resources.


AFT

"Audio File Transfer" service of the ARD.


Amazon S3

Amazon Simple Storage Service - cloud computing platform provided by Amazon offering data storage, processing and virtual servers.


AMWA

The Advanced Media Workflow Association. A body who develops broadcast standards and who published the AS-11 delivery specification.


Android

Android: Linux-based operating system for mobile handsets, tablets and set-top boxes


AoIP

Audio over IP


API

Application Programming Interface: computer code, tools and hopefully documentation that provides access to software systems


AR

Augmented Reality: overlay of virtual elements on top of the real environment, either at the point of production or through headphones and special glasses at the client side.


ARD

The ARD is a cooperative association of Germany's public service broadcasters. It was founded in 1950.


AVC

Advanced Video Coding. Also known as h.264. A family of video codecs using a specific set of methods to compress video signals. AVC-I class 100 (used for DPP HD delivery) is a member of the AVC family.


AVC Intra

I-Frame only h.264/AVC-based HD codec developed by Panasonic


AVC Ultra

h.264/AVC-based codec family developed by Panasonic. AVC-Ultra covers small proxy media up to 4K.


AVC-I100

I-Frame only h.264/AVC-based HD codec developed by Panasonic, limited to 100Mb/s


AVC-I50

I-Frame only h.264/AVC-based HD codec developed by Panasonic, limited to 50Mb/s


AVCHD

h.264/AVC-based LongGOP 8-bit 4:2:0 codec developed by Panasonic and Sony for use predominantly in consumer cameras.


Azure

Cloud computing platform provided by Microsoft offering data storage, virtual servers and other cloud services


 

B

Baseline-TIFF

A variant of TIFF with a defined minimum of features that systems should accomodate.


Best Effort

without guarantee of delivery and integrity of delivery


Black Shading

Process of mapping fixed-pattern noise of a camera to be removed from recorded material. Especially with RED cameras a manual Black Shading update may be required if ambient temperature or exposure times change drastically.


BNS

Broadcast Network Services - proprietary platform for IP transfer of media and other data developed by Media Broadcast GmbH


Bonding

Bonding describes the aggregation of several paths of communication for one transmission. It can deliver both higher throughput and resilience through diversity.


BT.2020

ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020 defines aspects such as resolution, colour space etc. for UHD-TV, in the tradition of 601 and 709, allowing a greater range of colours to be displayed to viewers


BUC

Block Up Converter - the transmission unit of a satellite antenna. The receiver is known as Low Noise Converter(LNC)


 

C

CDN

Content Delivery Network - system of servers on the internet that is designed to distribute large amounts of data or IP streams to large numbers of users simultaneously.


Checksum

Checksum - a value calculated from a file that can be distributed along with the file to enable file integrity checks on the bit-level.


CLog

Canon Log Gamma - proprietary near-flat gamma curve to preserve dynamic range


Cloud Storage

Data storage on remote servers operated by a service provider.


Codec

Coder-Decoder: specific design of data compression and decompression


Conform

Re-link the edit sequence to the high resolution master media after a low resolution edit


CPL

Composition Playlist - lists and manages all essence units inside an IMF or DCP file


CPU

Central Processing Unit of a computer


CRC

Cyclic Rendundancy Check - method of creation and use of checksums


CSV

comma separated value - lightweight structure of data in a text-file


 

D

Data Rate

The amount of data used per second of video/audio (e.g. 5Mbps = 5 megabits of data per second of video)


DCI

Digital Cinema Initiatives - industry group promoting the design and adoption of standards for digital cinema


DCP

Digital Cinema Package - tightly specified container format for delivery of digital cinema media.


DCT

Discrete Co-sine Transformation - mathematical function that forms the basis of many lossy codecs such as JPEG or MP3


Decoder

Hardware or software implementation that decodes a compressed or encrypted signal or file


DMZ

Demilitarized Zone - secured portion of an IP network that allows access from both the internet and private networks without allowing direct through connections


Down Conversion

The process of producing lower-resolution pictures from higher-resolution ones.


DPX

Digital Moving-Picture Exchange. A ‘digital intermediate’ video format most often used for visual effects and grading.


Dynamic Range

Amount of difference between the darkest pixels and the brightest pixels in an image


 

E

EBU

The European Broadcasting Union. An industry body bringing together broadcasters from across Europe.


EDL

Edit Decision List - machine readable time-code-based set of instructions for transitions, FX etc. Optionally with reference to source files.


Epic

RED Epic - high resolution digital cinema camera


 

F

FEC

Forward Error Correction - method to reduce data transmission errors by creating overhead bits that enable some recovery by means of mathematical algorithms


Filetransfer

File transfer - the move of files across IP networks.


FTP

File Transfer Protocol - network protocol for IP-based transfer of files.


 

G

Gamut

The range of colours able to be displayed by a particular format


GOP

Group of Pictures - structure common for MPEG type compression. Some frames are fully coded (see I-Frame) whereas intermediate frames are described purely by their differences to previous and following I-Frames. In addition some frames may only be de...


GPU

Graphics Processing Unit - specialised computing chip(s) originally designed for graphics rendering, but subsequently used for many different demanding computation tasks.


 

H

H.264

H.264/MPEG-4 AVC - mature, very efficient video compression algorithm


H.265

H.265 or "High Efficiency Video Coding" (HEVC) a.k.a. "MPEG-H Part 2" - developed from h.264. As yet very efficient at broadcast distribution data rates but not yet optimised for very low or very high datarates.


HDCAM

proprietary HD-capable digital videotape system, developed in 1999 by Sony


HDCAM SR

proprietary Sony digital videotape system that followed HDCAM and supports much higher data-rates and resolutions up to 2K. Introduced in 2003 and at the time of writing a common delivery method for non-file based video.


HDR

High Dynamic Range (see Dynamic Range)


HDSLM

High Definition Single Lens Mirrorless - compact system camera with interchangeable lenses, large sensor and HD video recording capability.


HDSLR

High Definition Single Lens Reflex - digital SLR camera with HD video recording capability.


HEVC

High Efficiency Video Coding – also known as h.265. The next generation of video codecs, following on from AVC


HMD

Head Mounted Display - video display system attached to the viewer's head. May fill the entire field of vision in which case it is commonly referred to as "VR Goggles"


 

I

I-Frame

Short for Intraframe - fully and independently coded frame of video


IaaS

Infrastructure as a Service - IT-infrastructure that can be provisioned according to demand and thus allows rapid up/down-scaling without costly ownership of overhead.


IATA

IATA - International Air Transport Association


IFB

Interruptible Foldback - contributor clean feed which allows for override by director talkback


IMF

see "Interopable Master Format" (in chapter BASIC) A file format used for mastering and exchange of content, especially in the US


IMP

Interoperable Master Package - data packet in IMF


Inter-Frame

In contrast to intra-frame coding this method encodes video frames with reference to preceding and following frames.


Interlaced

Each frame is read out on only odd, then only even lines. Each half-frame is saved, coded and transmitted separately. Interlaced formats are denoted by "i", i.e. 1080i


Intraframe

Each frame is independently coded


IOS

Operating system for mobile Apple devices such as iPhone or iPad


ISDN

Integrated Services Digital Network - network technology that allows IP packet transmission over switched telephone networks at guaranteed synchronous data rates


ITU

International Telecommunication Union - special organisation of the UN to coordinate technical aspects of telecommunications worldwide.


 

J

Jitter

Jitter describes the differences in arrival timing of clocked transmission signals. Here it is used to refer to variance in packet travel time through the network. Compensation for jitter will necessarily incur a delay which will affect real-time tra...


 

K

KA-Sat

KA-SAT refers to the high power satellite Ka_SAT 9A, in orbit at 9°E since 2011


KU-Band

KU-Band - the name of the frequency range of 12.4-18GHz, used in satellite transmission


 

L

LAN

Local Area Network


Latenz

Difference between the signal input and subsequent output of a transmission component or -system


Log-C

Proprietary gamma logarithmic gamma curve developed by Arri to accommodate the full range of a sensor output


Long-GOP

Long Groupt Of Pictures - any GOP of more than 4 frames is called Long-GOP, with a typical length of 12 frames


 

M

MiFi

Derived from "My WiFi", describes a mobile WLAN hotspot, commonly connected to 3G/4G networks where available


MP4

Video file container for MPEG-4 content, structurally based on Apple's QuickTime


MPEG-TS

MPEG container format which allows streaming of video, audio and data compressed with MPEG-2 Part 1


MPEG/L2

Digital audio compression standard released by MPEG


MPEG4

Digital audio & video compression standard released by MPEG


MXF

Material eXchange Format - a standardised file container format that can zero, one or more items each of contain video, audio and metadata


MXR

Mixed Reality - collective term to describe systems and environments that combine reality, AR and/or VR elements


 

N

N-1

Also known as "Clean Feed" - a summation of all sound signals of a mix apart from the contributor itself, to which it is fed as a monitoring and communications channel. Aids contributors as they do not hear themselves with a delay through the system,...


NAS

Network Attached Storage - data storage that can be accessed from clients on the same network.


 

O

Object based audio

A method of recording audio which treats each source of sound as its own “object” which are mixed by the receiver into as many channels as makes sense for that device (perhaps one for your phone, but 20 for a cinema)


OP1a

Simple Operational Pattern of the MXF standard, defines that only a single A/V package is included


OPL

Output Profile List - set of IMP metadata which defines the possible output formats to be derived from an IMF


OTT

Over The Top. A way of delivering content over a broadband connection


 

P

P2HD

Family of Panasonic products based on their P2 redording media cards.


Point-to-Multipoint

Point-to-Multipoint essentially describes traditional broadcast


Point-to-Point

Point-to-Point is a direct connection between transmitter and receiver, i.e. Unicast


Progressive

Each frame is fully read and coded, denoted by "p" i.e. 720p


PsF

Progressive segmented Frame - video format saving and transmitting progressive video as interlaced. Can be transmitted without phase difference and re-assembled at the receiver without requiring interpolation.


Push

transmission initiated by the transmitter


 

Q

QoS

Quality of Service - commonly used with respect to an IP network technology that allows to prioritise and guarantee transmission of data packets at the cost of additional overhead.


 

R

R3D

File container format to contain proprietary REDCODE RAW recordings produced by RED cameras


RedcineX

Decoding and basic manipulation software for REDCODE RAW processing. Provided for free by RED.


 

S

SAN

Storage Area Network - high performing complex data storage system utilising its own network infrastructure, usually to accommodate large data volumes and fast throughput.


SDI

Serial Digital Interface - family of SMPTE standards for point to point transmission of digital video data over copper or optical fiber


SIP

Session Initiation Protocol - control set for Iestablishing P based communications i.e. Skype


SLS

Single Large Sensor - describes cameras that contain a single relatively large image sensor, usually in the 35mm format. In contrast to more common 3-chip camera design.


SNG

Satellite News Gathering, usually vehicle-based. In central Europe SNGs use the KU-Band


SRW5100

Sony HDCAM-SR Player


SRW5800

Sony HDCAM-SR Recorder


SSD

Solid State Disk - electronic data storage with no moving parts


Streaming

Continuous standard-speed transmission of audio and/or video data over IP networks, which clients can join to receive at any time. Live-Streaming describes real-time transmissions, allowing for system latencies.


 

T

TLink

ARRIRAW Transport Link - proprietary interface packing raw camera data into a 12bit RGBA HD videostream. This can use HD-SDI infrastructure transparently to reach T-Link compatible receivers i.e. recording devices


 

U

UDP

User Datagram Protocol - connectionless data protocol which forms part of the core of the Internet Protocol (IP) suite. Essentially "fire and forget" with no guarantee for success and integrity of transmission, in contrast to TCP/IP


 

V

Viprinet

Provider of network Bonding systems


VR

Virtual Reality - artificial environment created in computers


 

W

WAN

Wide Area Network - any connecting networks outside of an enclosed infrastrucutre (i.e. LAN)


Wavelet

Basis of mathematical algorithm used in signal compression i.e. in JPEG2000


Windows Mobile

Operating system for for mobile handsets and tablets created by Microsoft


WLAN

Wireless Local Area Network


 

X

XAVC

Sony proprietary codec family based on h.264 making use of the highest level supported in that standard. Supports from HD up to 4K video at a max. framerate of 60fps with up to 12bit.


XF AVC

Proprietary codec used in professional Canon videocameras. Supports 2K in 4:4:4 at 12bit and 4K in 4:2:2 at 10bit.


XML

eXtensible Markup Language - set of rules that formats hierarchically structured data in files which are both human- and machine-readable.


XMP

eXtensible Metadata Platform - ISO standard for embedding metadata into media files


XXHash

Non-cryptographic algorithm to calculate Checksum. Similar in resilience to MD5 or SHA-1 yet optimised for high-througput transmissions


 

Y

 

Z